Research

Harvard University has no affiliation with PhysioTru, Inc.

  1. http://www.nutritionremarks.com/2012/01/23/omega-3-docosapentaenoic-acid-dpa-what-is-known-3/

    Tsuji M, Murota SI, Morita I. Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5, n-3) suppressed tube-forming activity in endothelial cells induced by vascular endothelial growth factor. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2003 May;68(5):337-42.

    Pawar A, Jump DB. Unsaturated fatty acid regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity in rat primary hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2003 Sep 19;278(38):35931-9.

    Gotoh N, Nagao K, Onoda S, Shirouchi B, Furuya K, Nagai T, et al. Effects of three different highly purified n-3 series highly unsaturated fatty acids on lipid metabolism in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Nov 25;57(22):11047-54.

    ** DPA has not been extensively subjected to research due to the limited availability of the pure compound.

  2. http://www.issfal.org/2014/satellites/dpa

    (From same page: http://www.issfal.org/Book_of_Abstracts_Final_06_13_14.pdf)

    Summary/Highlights: Several large studies have demonstrated that blood levels of DPA are independently and positively correlate with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease to the same or greater extent than EPA and DHA. Additionally, studies on purified DPA in animal and cell cultures showed that DPA has potential to improve various aspects of human health.

    Eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic omega-3 and docosahexaenoic acids decrease macrophage prostaglandin E2 and inflammatory cytokine production. Pepper-Yowell A.R., Wang S., Byelashov O.A., Sellers M.D., Harris T.L., Ballou M.A

    The distribution of DPA in blood and tissue lipids and its potential as a wellness biomarker. Bibus D. Lipid Technologies, LLC and the University of Minnesota.

    The bioavailability of DPA vs EPA–a short term study. Fard S.G., Turchini G., Paul Lewandowski P., Sinclair A.J. Metabolic Research Unit, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

  3. http://jymsupplementscience.com/dpa-the-other-critical-omega-3/

Additional findings:

  1. http://omegaprotein.com/growing-interest-in-a-forgotten-long-chain-omega-3/

  2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21807486

  3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19650956

  4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8832760

  5. https://aemforms.informaexhibitions.com/content/dam/Informa/content-pillar/insider/infographics/73378_INS06_OmegaLevel&Coronary_s.pdf

  6. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0163782710000354

    Summary/Highlights: In addition, there is evidence that n-3 DPA possesses 10-fold greater endothelial cell migration ability than EPA, which is important in wound-healing processes. An in vivo study has reported that n-3 DPA reduces the fatty acid synthase and malic enzyme activity levels in n-3 DPA-supplemented mice and these effects were stronger than the EPA-supplemented mice.

    Schwab JM, Chiang N, Arita M, Serhan CN. Resolvin E1 and protectin D1 activate inflammation-resolution programmes. Nature. 2007 Jun 14;447(7146):869-74.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4162505/#ref-44

Mozaffarian D, Lemaitre RN, King IB, et al. : Circulating long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and incidence of congestive heart failure in older adults: the cardiovascular health study: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(3):160–170 10.7326/0003-4819-155-3-201108020-00006

Amano T, Matsubara T, Uetani T, et al. : Impact of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on coronary plaque instability: an integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound study. Atherosclerosis. 2011;218(1):110–116 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.05.030

Leng GC, Horrobin DF, Fowkes FG, et al. : Plasma essential fatty acids, cigarette smoking, and dietary antioxidants in peripheral arterial disease. A population-based case-control study. Arterioscler Thromb. 1994;14(3):471–478 10.1161/01.ATV.14.3.471

Hino A, Adachi H, Toyomasu K, et al. : Very long chain N-3 fatty acids intake and carotid atherosclerosis: an epidemiological study evaluated by ultrasonography. Atherosclerosis. 2004;176(1):145–149 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2004.04.020

Akiba S, Murata T, Kitatani K, et al. : Involvement of lipoxygenase pathway in docosapentaenoic acid-induced inhibition of platelet aggregation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2000;23(11):1293–1297 (Japanese Study Reference.)

Lamalice L, Le Boeuf F, Huot J: Endothelial cell migration during angiogenesis. Circ Res. 2007;100(6):782–794 10.1161/01.RES.0000259593.07661.1e

Kanayasu-Toyoda T, Morita I, Murota S: Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5, n-3), an elongation metabolite of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3), is a potent stimulator of endothelial cell migration on pretreatment in vitro. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1996;54(5):319–325 10.1016/S0952-3278(96)90045-9

Gottlicher M, Widmark E, Li Q, et al. : Fatty acids activate a chimera of the clofibric acid-activated receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89(10):4653–4657 10.1073/pnas.89.10.4653 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

Horton JD, Goldstein JL, Brown MS: SREBPs: transcriptional mediators of lipid homeostasis. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2002;67:491–498 10.1101/sqb.2002.67.491

Pawar A, Jump DB: Unsaturated fatty acid regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity in rat primary hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278(38):35931–35939 10.1074/jbc.M306238200

Kishida E, Tajiri M, Masuzawa Y: Docosahexaenoic acid enrichment can reduce L929 cell necrosis induced by tumor necrosis factor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1761(4):454–462 10.1016/j.bbalip.2006.03.023

Wall R, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, et al. : Fatty acids from fish: the anti-inflammatory potential of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Nutr Rev. 2010;68(5):280–289 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00287.x

Assies J, Lieverse R, Vreken P, et al. : Significantly reduced docosahexaenoic and docosapentaenoic acid concentrations in erythrocyte membranes from schizophrenic patients compared with a carefully matched control group. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;49(6):510–522 10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00986-0

Kelly L, Grehan B, Chiesa AD, et al. : The polyunsaturated fatty acids, EPA and DPA exert a protective effect in the hippocampus of the aged rat. Neurobiol Aging. 2011;32(12):2318.e1–2318.e15 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.04.001

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22591893

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4548432/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20196972

Mori, T.A., et al., Dietary fish as a major component of a weight-loss diet: effect on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin metabolism in overweight hypertensive subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 1999. 70(5): p. 817-25.

Thorsdottir, I., et al., Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content. Int J Obes (Lond), 2007. 31(10): p. 1560-6.

* Based on most recent AHA statistics available. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Advocate/StateIssues/FindStateSpecificInformation/State-Fact-Sheets_UCM_426369_Article.jsp#mainContent

** Sun Q et al. “Blood concentrations of individual long-chain n-3 fatty acids and risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction.” Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(1):216-223.

{ Herold PM, Kinsella JE. “Fish oil consumption and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease - a comparison of findings from animal and human feeding trials.” Am J Clin Nutr. 1986;43(4):566-598.

Paganelli F et al. “Altered erythrocyte n-3 fatty acids in Mediterranean patients with coronary artery disease.” Int J Cardiol. 2001;78(1):27-32.

Leng GC et al. “Plasma essential fatty-acids, cigarette-smoking, and dietary antioxidants in peripheral arterial-disease - a population-based case-control study.” Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis. 1994;14(3):471-478.

Assies J et al. “Significantly reduced docosahexaenoic and docosapentaenoic acid concentrations in erythrocyte membranes from schizophrenic patients compared with a carefully matched control group.” Biological Psychiatry. 2001;49(6):510-522.

Milte CM et al. “Erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acid status, memory, cognition and mood in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls.” Prostagland Leukotriene Essen Fatty Acids. 2011;84(5-6):153-161.

Ritch CR et al. “Dietary fatty acids correlate with prostate cancer biopsy grade and volume in Jamaican men.” J Urol. 2007;177(1):97-101.

Pawlosky RJ, Salem N. “Ethanol exposure causes a decrease in docosahexaenoic acid and an increase in docosapentaenoic acid in feline brains and retinas.” Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61(6):1284-1289.

Hino A et al. “Very long chain n-3 fatty acids intake and carotid atherosclerosis: An epidemiological study evaluated by ultrasonography.” Atheroscler. 2004;176(1):145-149.

Kaur G et al. “Short-term docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3) supplementation increases tissue docosapentaenoic acid, DHA and EPA concentrations in rats.” Br J Nutr. 2011;103(1):32-37.

Akiba S, Murata T, Kitatani K, Sato T. “Involvement of lipoxygenase pathway in docosapentaenoic acid-induced inhibition of platelet aggregation.” Biol Pharmaceutical Bull. 2000;23(11):1293-1297.

Kanayasu Toyoda T, Morita I, Murota S. “Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5, n-3), an elongation metabolite of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3), is a potent stimulator of endothelial cell migration on pretreatment in vitro.” Prostaglandins Leukotriene Essent Fatty Acids. 1996;54(5):319-325.

Kelly L et al. “The polyunsaturated fatty acids, EPA and DPA exert a protective effect in the hippocampus of the aged rat.” Neurobiology of Aging; In Press, Corrected Proof. }

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4924170/

Anti-Lipogenic/Fat Burning:

http://www.nsca.com/uploadedFiles/NSCA/Resources/PDF/Education/Articles/NSCA_Classics_PDFs/omega-3-fatty-acids-a-novel-fat-burner.pdf

http://main.poliquingroup.com/ArticlesMultimedia/Articles/Article/964/Five_Reasons_Fish_Oil_Will_Make_You_Stronger_Leane.aspx

Cortisol:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12909818

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2958879/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23390041

Insulin Function:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17476547

Energy:

http://www.fitday.com/fitness-articles/nutrition/fats/what-omega-3-fatty-acid-does-for-you.html

Eye cell survival / stroke:

http://mobile.nutraingredients-usa.com/Research/Fish-oil-molecule-ups-brain-and-eye-cell-survival-odds-from-stroke?utm_source=newsletter_daily&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=24-Apr-2017&c=jU1uJzV6CzXgUJVP%2BXuDfQ%3D%3D&p2=&k=NIU-BBA-AM-BoneJointHealth,NIU-BBA-AM-Bone%20&%20Joint%20Health%20(mailshot),NIU-BBA-AM-SportsNutrition,NIU-BBA-AM-GMP,NIU-BBA-AM-GMP%20mailshot,NIU-BBA-AM-Digestive,NIU-BBA-AM-WeightManagement,NIU-BBA-AM-Weight%20Management%20(mailshot),NIU-BBA-AM-Sports%20Nutrition%20(mailshot),NIU-BBA-AM-SportsNutrition%20mailshot,NIU-BBA-AM-Digestive%20mailshot,NIU-BBA-AM-FVUBASF,NIU-BBAM-AM-COGNITIVE,NIU-BBA-AM-COGNITIVE

http://www.nutraingredients.com/Research/Omega-3-could-help-support-friendly-bacteria-in-the-gut

https://www.optibacprobiotics.co.uk/blog/2015/08/could-omega-3-oils-support-our-gut-bacteria

http://www.issfal.org/news/articles/2014/07/02/omega-3-fats-may-reduce-risk-of-gastrointestinal-diseases

https://www.vitalchoice.com/article/omega-3s-may-deter-gut-diseases

https://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/Article/2018/01/05/Omega-3s-and-heart-rate-Meta-analysis-provides-strong-clinical-evidence-for-benefits

https://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/Article/2018/01/02/Omega-3-may-protect-against-DNA-damage-in-vascular-cells-Study

http://www.foxnews.com/health/2011/11/10/fish-oil-101.html

https://www.aarp.org/health/conditions-treatments/info-2016/heart-attack-hospital-er.html

https://www.the-hospitalist.org/hospitalist/article/121715/data-show-patients-are-more-likely-die-night-weekends

https://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/heart-failure/news/20081104/elevated-death-risk-after-heart-attack#1

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18614744

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28924088

https://www.vitalstudy.org/findings.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YUdiOeDdz8Q